Indonesia is facing a crisis of leadership, and the country’s Muslim community is in the worst spot it has been in decades.
Political violence is a common sight in Indonesia’s vast Muslim-majority nation.
But in this article, we look at the problems that are making Indonesia’s Muslims vulnerable to extremism.
Indonesia’s new Prime Minister, Joko Widodo, has promised a radical overhaul of the nation’s legal system, including a plan to ban all forms of extremism.
But it is unlikely that this will be enough to change the underlying social, political and religious problems that fuel extremist violence.
Indonesia has become a pariah in the world for its failure to address radicalisation.
We look at how Islamism is fueling extremism and how Indonesia’s leaders have failed to tackle it.
More stories from Indonesia Indonesia is a religious, ethnic and linguistic majority with a strong sense of its identity.
The country’s ethnic Chinese minority make up around 10% of the population.
Islam is the most popular religion in Indonesia, with roughly 80% of Indonesia’s residents identifying as Muslim.
Indonesia is the largest Muslim-populated country in Southeast Asia and the region’s most populous Muslim-dominated nation.
Religious extremism is prevalent in Indonesia and the rest of Southeast Asia.
In the country, it is often a result of cultural misunderstandings and misconceptions, which can often be fuelled by an inability to accept differences.
In 2016, a young Indonesian student, Zainuddin, was killed in Indonesia after being caught in a sectarian sectarian fight with a Muslim neighbour.
Zainudin’s mother, Hadiya, had been travelling in Malaysia when her son was killed.
She has since fled the country to seek help from Indonesia’s state-run refugee agency, where she now lives.
Hadiyah was a former Indonesian diplomat who was sent to Malaysia in 2015 to work in Malaysia’s National Directorate of Religious Affairs (DKI), where she was accused of spying and “inciting hatred”.
Zainudi was killed on April 5, 2020.
It is not known if he was killed by a Sunni Muslim mob or the police.
It remains unclear why the police were unable to trace Zainuda’s identity to his home country, Malaysia.
This year, a number of extremist groups have been able to launch attacks in Indonesia.
In September, Islamic State (IS) released a video showing an Islamic State fighter killing the wife of a Muslim politician and wounding another politician in an apparent retaliation for Jakarta’s decision to suspend all mosques in the country.
Two other Indonesian politicians, former Defence Minister Datuk Seri Tan Sri Mohd Khalid Mahmud and former Justice Minister Mohd Anwar Ibrahim, were also killed in recent weeks in attacks carried out by the group.
The Indonesian government has tried to stop the growing number of radicalised youths, but the problems persist.
Indonesia currently has around 12,000 suspected extremists, compared to nearly 100,000 people in the UK and around 100,00 in Australia.
Many of these people are young Muslims who have been radicalised online or through online social media.
In October, a court in the eastern city of Kuching sentenced a man to 10 years in jail for trying to travel to Syria to join IS.
The judge had said that the man’s father was a Muslim and his family “belonged to Islam”.
He was the first person to be convicted of attempting to travel abroad to join a violent extremist group.
However, the sentence was later overturned.
Other people have been sentenced for similar crimes, including the man convicted of plotting to attack the Jakarta airport, but his conviction was upheld by the Supreme Court in March.
A further 20 people were convicted of planning attacks against the Jakarta Airport on February 22.
The government has also tried to tackle radicalisation through the use of online forums, with the Indonesian government having set up a forum to monitor extremist groups.
But this is unlikely to be enough, given the deep mistrust and anger felt by many in Indonesia about the lack of progress on radicalisation in recent years.
In January, the Indonesian Government banned the Facebook platform Facebook for six months.
This followed the death of an 18-year-old Indonesian man who died after posting an image of himself with a gun in a post that called for Muslims to attack a mosque.
In July, a Muslim man was sentenced to five years in prison for insulting the prophet Mohammed on Facebook.
And in September, a man who called for attacks on Jakarta’s streets was sentenced for a string of Facebook posts that included an image that showed the Prophet Mohammed with a knife.
This month, Indonesian President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo announced that the country would introduce a new Islamic criminal code.
This code will set out strict penalties for offences such as insulting Islam, encouraging violence, supporting terrorism and insulting the Prophet Mohammad.
These changes are part of a series of reforms announced by Jokowiec in December 2016.
These include a law to increase